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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Population: 3 871 643

GDP: 18 870 000 000.00 $

Companies & Organizations: 3

Description

Bosnia and Herzegovina declared sovereignty in October 1991 and independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

 

 

 

On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that ended three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multi-ethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Bosnian Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS).

 

 

 

The Federation and RS governments are responsible for overseeing most government functions. Additionally, the Dayton Accords established the Office of the High Representative (OHR) to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council (PIC) at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called "Bonn Powers." An original NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops assembled in 1995 was succeeded over time by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). In 2004, European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR. Currently EUFOR deploys around 600 troops in theater in a policing capacity.

Population

Population: 3,871,643 (2014)

 

Nationality: noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s) adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

 

Ethnic groups: Bosniak 48%, Serb 37.1%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6%. Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam.

 

Languages: Bosnian (official), Croatian (official), Serbian (official).

 

Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%.

GDP

 

GDP: $18 870 000 000.00 (2013)

Military Organization

 

Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (AFBiH): Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Air and Air Defense Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Zrakoplovstvo i Protuzracna Obrana, ZPO).

Conflicts and Disputes

 

Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute.

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina  is  a transit point for heroin being trafficked to Western Europe; minor transit point for marijuana; remains highly vulnerable to money-laundering activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy, weak law enforcement, and instances of corruption.

Geographical Information and Map

 

Capital: Sarajevo

 

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia. Within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Montenegro, and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east.

 

Geographic coordinates:

44 00 N, 18 00 E.

 

Area:

total: 51,197 sq km

land: 51,187 sq km

water: 10 sq km.

 

Land boundaries:

total: 1,543 km

border countries: Croatia 956 km, Montenegro 242 km, Serbia 345 km.

 

Coastline: 20 km.

 

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, timber, hydropower.