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Estonia

Population: 1 257 921

GDP: 24 280 000 000.00 $

Companies & Organizations: 12

Description

 

After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Incorporated into the USSR in 1940  - Estonia regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with the West. It joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004, formally joined the OECD in late 2010, and adopted the euro as its official currency on 1 January 2011.

Population

 

Population: 1,257,921 (2014)

 

Nationality: noun: Estonian(s) adjective: Estonian

 

Ethnic groups: Estonian 68.7%, Russian 24.8%, Ukrainian 1.7%, Belarusian 1%, Finn 0.6%, other 1.6%, unspecified 1.6%

 

Languages: Estonian (official) 68.5%, Russian 29.6%, Ukrainian 0.6%, other 1.2%, unspecified 0.1%

 

Religions: Lutheran 9.9%, Orthodox 16.2%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 2.2%, other 0.9%, none 54.1%, unspecified 16.7%

GDP

 

GDP: $ 24 280 000 000.00 (2013)

Military Organization

 

Estonian Defense Forces (Eesti Kaitsevagi): Land Force (Maavagi), Navy (Merevagi), Air Force (Ohuvagi), Defense League (Kaitseliit).

Conflicts and Disputes

 

Russia and Estonia in May 2005 signed a technical border agreement, but Russia in June 2005 recalled its signature after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu; Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty text; Russia demands better treatment of the Russian-speaking population in Estonia; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Estonia implements strict Schengen border rules with Russia.

 

Estonia  is growing producer of synthetic drugs; increasingly important transshipment zone for cannabis, cocaine, opiates, and synthetic drugs since joining the European Union and the Schengen Accord; potential money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking is a concern, as is possible use of the gambling sector to launder funds; major use of opiates and ecstasy.

 

Stateless persons: 94,235 (2012):  following independence in 1991, automatic citizenship was restricted to those who were Estonian citizens prior to the 1940 Soviet occupation and their descendants; thousands of ethnic Russians remained stateless when forced to choose between passing Estonian language and citizenship tests or applying for Russian citizenship; one reason for demurring on Estonian citizenship was to retain the right of visa-free travel to Russia; stateless residents can vote in local elections but not general elections.

 

Geographical Information and Map

 

Capital: Tallinn

 

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia. The mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands.

 

Geographic coordinates:

59 00 N, 26 00 E.

 

Area:

total: 45,228 sq km

land: 42,388 sq km

water: 2,840 sq km

note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea.

 

Land boundaries:

total: 657 km

border countries: Latvia 333 km, Russia 324 km.

 

Coastline: 3,794 km.

 

Natural resources: oil shale, peat, rare earth elements, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud.