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Libya

Population: 6 244 174

GDP: 70 920 000 000.00 $

Description

 

The Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks in the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar al-Qadhafi assumed leadership and began to espouse his political system at home, which was a combination of socialism and Islam.

 

 

During the 1970s, Qadhafi used oil revenues to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversive and terrorist activities that included the downing of two airliners - one over Scotland, another in Northern Africa - and a discotheque bombing in Berlin. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated Qadhafi politically and economically following the attacks; sanctions were lifted in 2003 following Libyan acceptance of responsibility for the bombings and agreement to claimant compensation.

 

 

Qadhafi also agreed to end Libya's program to develop weapons of mass destruction, and he made significant strides in normalizing relations with Western nations. Unrest that began in several Middle Eastern and North African countries in late 2010 erupted in Libyan cities in early 2011. Qadhafi's brutal crackdown on protesters spawned a civil war that triggered UN authorization of air and naval intervention by the international community. After months of seesaw fighting between government and opposition forces, the Qadhafi regime was toppled in mid-2011 and replaced by a transitional government. Libya in 2012 formed a new parliament and elected a new prime minister.

Population

 

Population: 6,244,174

 

Nationality: noun: Libyan(s)  adjective: Libyan

 

Ethnic groups: Berber and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians)

 

Languages: Arabic (official), Italian, English (all widely understood in the major cities); Berber (Nafusi, Ghadamis, Suknah, Awjilah, Tamasheq)

 

Religions: Muslim (official; virtually all Sunni) 96.6%, Christian 2.7%, Buddhist 0.3%, Hindu <.1, Jewish <.1, folk religion <.1, unafilliated 0.2%, other <.1

note: non-Sunni Muslims include native Ibadhi Muslims (<1% of the population) and foreign Muslims.

 

Immigrants make up just over 12% of the total population, according to UN data (2013).

GDP

 

GDP: $ 70 920 000 000.00 (2013)

Military Organization

 

note - in transition; government attempting to staff a new national army with anti-Qadafi militia fighters and former members of Qadafi's military.

Conflicts and Disputes

 

Dormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the FLN's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco; various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Libya.

 

Refugees (country of origin): 16,796 (Syria).

 

Internally displaced persons: at least 80,400 (59,400 still displaced at the end of 2013 from the conflict between pro-Qadhafi and anti-Qadhafi forces in 2011; 21,000 displaced by clashes in and around Sebha in 2014).

Geographical Information and Map

 

Capital: Tripoli (Tarabulus)

 

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria. More than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert.

 

Geographic coordinates:

25 00 N, 17 00 E

 

Area:

total: 1,759,540 sq km

land: 1,759,540 sq km

water: 0 sq km

 

Land boundaries:

total: 4,348 km

border countries: Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,115 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km

 

Coastline: 1,770 km.

 

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, gypsum.