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Senegal

Population: 13 635 927

GDP: 15 360 000 000.00 $

Description

 

The French colonies of Senegal and the French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted their independence as the Mali Federation in 1960. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989.

 

The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance (MFDC) has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s, and several peace deals have failed to resolve the conflict. Nevertheless, Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. Senegal was ruled by a Socialist Party for 40 years until Abdoulaye Wade was elected president in 2000. He was reelected in 2007 and during his two terms amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and to weaken the opposition. His decision to run for a third presidential term sparked a large public backlash that led to his defeat in a March 2012 runoff election with Macky Sall.

Population

 

Population: 13,635,927 (2014).

 

Nationality: noun: Senegalese (singular and plural), adjective: Senegalese.

 

Ethnic groups: Wolof 43.3%, Pular 23.8%, Serer 14.7%, Jola 3.7%, Mandinka 3%, Soninke 1.1%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 9.4%.

 

Languages: French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka.

 

Religions: Muslim 94% (most adhere to one of the four main Sufi brotherhoods), Christian 5% (mostly Roman Catholic), indigenous beliefs 1%

GDP

 

GDP: $ 15 360 000 000.00 (2013).

Military Organization

 

Senegalese Armed Forces: Army, Senegalese National Navy (Marine Senegalaise, MNS), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal).

Conflicts and Disputes

 

The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau attempt to stem separatist violence, cross border raids, and arms smuggling into their countries from southern Senegal's Casamance region.

 

Internally displaced persons: up to 24,000 (clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region).

 

Refugees (country of origin): 13,703 (Mauritania) (2013).

 

Senegal is transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis.

Geographical Information and Map

 

Capital: Dakar

 

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania. Westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal.

 

Geographic coordinates:

14 00 N, 14 00 W.

 

Area:

 

total: 196,722 sq km

land: 192,530 sq km

water: 4,192 sq km

 

Land boundaries:

total: 2,640 km

border countries: The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km.

 

Coastline: 531 km.

 

Natural hazards: lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts.